HSE Legionella References

HSE Legionella References | Quotes directly from the Legionella Guidelines

Site Restrictions


“It is important that there should be ease of access to all parts of the system, components and associated equipment for management and maintenance purposes, e.g. tank, calorifiers, thermostatic mixing valves (TMVs), blending valves, circulation pumps etc.” – HSG 274 Part 2 p2.34

Legionella Awareness Training


“Inadequate management, lack of training and poor communication can be contributory factors in outbreaks of legionnaires’ disease.” – HSG 274 Part 2 p.16

Water Logbook


“Records kept for monitoring and inspection, which should be kept for at least five years.” – HSG 274 Part 2 p.25


Record Keeping


“Records kept for monitoring and inspection, which should be kept for at least five years.” – HSG 274 Part 2 p.25

Water Sampling Analysis Recommended


“In both hot and cold water systems, samples should be taken: if considered necessary by the risk assessment, from areas where the target control parameters are not met, from areas subject to low usage, stagnation excess storage capacity, dead legs, excessive heat loss, cross flow from water systems or other anomaly” – HSG 274 Part 2 p.2.122

See when to sample from HSG 274 Part 2.



See when to review your legionella risk assessment from HSG 274 Part 2

New System Chlorination Required


“Where necessary, hot and cold water services should be cleaned, flushed and disinfected in the following situations, as specified in the NS 8558: on completion of a new water installation or refurbishment of a hot and cold water system. On installation of new components, especially those which have been pressured tested”. – HSG 274 Part 2 p.2127. More examples as to when a disinfection is required.

Lead Pipework


Galvanised/lead pipe work is recommended to be removed as it may lead to legionella proliferation. “Avoid using materials that harbour bacteria and other microorganisms or provide nutrients for microbial growth”. – HSG 274 Part 2 p.23

De-scale Services


“Dismantle, clean and disinfect removable parts, heads, inserts and hoses where fitted”. – HSG 274 Part 2 Table 2.1

Asset Identification Labelling


“It is important that there should be ease of access to all parts of the system, components and associated equipment for management and maintenance purposes, e.g. tank, calorifiers, thermostatic mixing valves (TMVs), blending valves, circulation pumps etc.” – HSG 274 Part 2 p2.34

Monthly Temperature Point Labelling


“It is important that there should be ease of access to all parts of the system, components and associated equipment for management and maintenance purposes, e.g. tank, calorifiers, thermostatic mixing valves (TMVs), blending valves, circulation pumps etc.” – HSG 274 Part 2 p2.34

Weekly Flushing


“Flush the outlets until the temperature at the outlet stabilises and is comparable to supply water and purge to drain”. – HSG 274 Part 2 Table 2.1

TMV Servicing


“To maintain protection again scald risk, TMVs require regular routine maintenance carried out by competent persons in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions”. – HSG 274 Part 2 Table 2.1

TMV Replacement


“Where a scalding risk is assessed as low (e.g. where health users immerse their whole body), type 2 TMVs that can be overridden by the users are required by building regulations. Where a scalding risk is considered significant (e.g. where users are very young, very elderly, infirm or significantly mentally or physically disabled or those with sensory loss) then type 3 TMVs that are pre-set and fail-safe should be provided (but are required at healthcare premises) and should be checked regularly to ensure they are failsafe if the cold water supply pressure is interrupted”. – HSG 274 Part 2 box 2.3

TMV Pipework Exceeds 2m


“Where a single TMV serves multiple tap outlets, the risk can be increased”. – HSG 274 Part 2 p.2.76 This also applied to TMV’s positioning from the outlet.

TMV Install


“Where a risk assessment identifies a significant scalding risk is present, e.g. where there are very young, very elderly, infirm or significantly mentally or physically disabled people or those with sensory loss, fitting TMVs at appropriate outlets, such as hand washbasins and sinks is required.” – HSG 274 Part 2 p.2.75

HTM 04-01: Supplement – Performance specification D 08: thermostatic mixing valves (healthcare premises) See HTM 04-41 extract.

Page 6 – “it is recognised that users of domestic hot water for ablutionary purposes in health and social care establishments, particularly vulnerable people (see Note below), can be at risk of injury by scalding”. “’Vulnerable people’ are defined in Health and Safety Executive’s Health Services Information Sheet 6 as:

• children;

• older people;

• people with reduced mental capacity, mobility or temperature sensitivity;

• people who cannot react appropriately, or quickly enough, to prevent injury.”

TMV Removal


“Where a risk assessment identifies the risk of scalding is insignificant, TMVs are not required” – HSG 274 Part 2 p.2.75


Flexible Hoses


You should ensure all flexible hoses comply with the WRAS approval scheme and be tested and comply with BS 6920. “In buildings where there are those with an increased susceptibility to infection or with processes requiring specific water characteristics, materials of an enhanced quality may be required. Healthcare buildings and care homes should specifically take note of alerts and advice from the Department of Health and Health Facilities Scotland. For example, healthcare premises are advised against the use of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) lined flexible hoses (tails) as these have been shown to be a risk of microbial colonisation. Such flexible connections should therefore only be used in healthcare premises where an installation has to move during operation or is subject to vibration.”

HSE 274 Part 2 p.2.35

“Flexible hoses should be used only for the following applications: to allow for vibration of equipment; to accommodate vertical displacement of high and low baths and sinks; to facilitate essential maintenance and access of bespoke equipment when no alternative is available. Note – Where fitted, flexible hoses should be kept as short as possible and be kink-free as to no affect flow”. – The Health Technical Memorandum 04-01: Safe water in healthcare premises. Part A: Design, installation and commissioning states in p.3.41

Caution Hot Water, Not Drinking Water, Drinking Water Signs


“The Regulations require employers to use a safety sign where there is a significant risk to health and safety” – The Health & Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996 p.4

Caution signs are recommended at any location where there is the potential for scalding hot water. This includes where TMVs are located as they may fail.

Isolation Valves


“Isolation valves should be included in all locations to facilitate maintenance and the implementation of control measures” – HSG 274 Part 2 p2.34

Dead Legs/ Ends


Cut back redundant pipe work to avoid stagnation.

The Water Regulations Advisory Scheme advises that ‘Minimising this risk can be achieved by completely removing redundant pipe work. Where this is not practicable the pipe should be terminated so that any ‘dead leg’ so created is no longer than twice the diameter of the pipe’. For example:

• 15mm to be no longer than 30mm (just over 1”)

• 22mm to be no longer than 44mm (just under 2”)

• 28mm to be no longer than 56mm (just over 2”)

• Water Regulations

Backflow Protection / Check Valves


“Single check valves are commonly used to prevent backflow” – HSG 274 Part 2 p.2.32

Clean and/or Disinfection


“The cold water storage tank should be cleaned, disinfect and any faults rectified”. – HSG 274 Part 2 p.2.57

CWST Refurbishment Required


Remove tank(s) where possible due to insufficient turnover and convert to mains water supply or remove existing tank(s) and replace with a new tank (with correct fittings)

Secure Base


The tank is sitting on an un-secure base which should be suitable for the tank to rest on.

More Coming Soon


More HSE Guidelines References coming soon. In the mean time all of these references and many more are also included within our legionella risk assessments for your ease.

Download the HSE Legionella Guidelines here for FREE


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Legionella Risk Assessment FAQs

When and how often do I need a risk assessment?

Under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and in compliance with the Approved Code of Practice (ACoP L8, HSG 274), duty holders, including employers and those in control of premises, must ensure the health and safety of their employees or others who may be affected by their undertaking, this includes the risk of legionella. Legionnaires Disease is a form of pneumonia, which can be fatal and the main route of infection is through inhalation, by inhaling airborne water droplets that contain Legionella. This also applies if you are a private Landlord and have rental properties which are occupied.

This includes taking suitable precautions to prevent, manage and control the risk of exposure to legionella. You can do this by undertaking the following: a risk assessment, actioning all identified risks within the initial report with remedial works, sampling the water quality to confirm bacterial presence with water testing, and carrying out ongoing record keeping also known as monitoring.

Do I need testing, a risk assessment or both?

Legionella testing, water testing or sampling is not to be confused with a legionella risk assessment. You are required by law to undertake a legionella risk assessment under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, COSHH and a number of other regulations where you can show you are working to comply with the HSE's HSG 274 legionella guidelines.Testing or sampling whilst not a legal requirement on it's own, it plays an important role in determining how efficient a water system is managed. Your risk assessment may identify that sampling is required due to existing risks or as a control and management precaution. In this instance sampling then becomes a requirement from your assessment. Without an L8 risk assessment you will not know where and how many samples are required. And without water testing/sampling you cannot determine how affective your control and management is. These two actions therefore should be undertaken together, not necessarily at the same time but unison to effectively management your risk from legionella.

Water testing services include Legionella, e-Coli, total viable count (TVC), Pseudomonas, hard water, chlorine free, pH levels and more. Learn more about legionella testing. We only use UKAS approved laboratories giving you peace of mind that the test will be of the highest quality possible.

How much does an L8 risk assessment cost?

All assessments vary in prices depending on the number of water outlets, cold water storage tanks, hot water cylinders, combi boilers and other water assets that may be present. The number of assets within your water system will determine the time spent on site and how long it will take to produce your report.

So how much does it cost? Across the industry, prices vary enormously often depending on the size of the company you use and their processes, the speed of works and professionalism. There are two types of assessments, the first is commercial and the second domestic, also referred to as residential rental properties or landlord risk assessments.

Commercial risk assessments normally start from £250 to in excess of £750, however our prices start from £99 depending on the size of the water system and location.

Domestic risk assessments can range tremendously with a number of plumbers, gas engineers and other tradesmen offering these assessments without the specialist training, it’s important to check that your assessor or engineer is properly qualified. Our prices start from £55 for multiple landlord properties to £95 for single landlord properties. Our prices for residential rental properties are based on the property being no more than 5 bedrooms.

How long will the risk assessment take?

On average, the time our qualified assessor spends on site is 1 hour for every 10 outlets (sinks, showers, baths, etc). So an assessment can take anywhere between 30 minutes to 6 or 7 hours. It entirely depends on the size of your water system and the number of water assets you have such as cold water storage tanks, cylinders or combination boilers.

Our engineers will work closely with you to ensure minimal disruption to your business is caused. Clear and easy access to rooms and buildings will play a part in time spent on site at your premises.

When will I receive your findings?

You will receive your LRA report between 2-10 working days from the date the assessment was carried out. From time to time, not often, our team will need a little more time, so please expect to have your report no later than 30 days. Need your assessment sooner? Get your report, guaranteed next day delivery via email for just £50.

What happens after I receive the report?

Within your report document, you will have an action plan offering guidance which lists all identified risks, with photos, that need remedying in order of importance. By following our advice and undertaking remedial works you will reduce the risk of exposure to Legionnaires' disease.  Once all the remedial works are complete, you will then need to focus on implementing your monitoring (periodical checks and maintenance) with a logbook for recording keeping all legal duties and monitoring requirements.

Are uRisk qualified?

Yes, all of our assessors are fully qualified and accredited by City & Guilds and can help assist you in meeting compliance today for HSE (ACoP L8). We are also Safe Contractor and Construction Online approved so you can rest assured that you are working with a trusted water hygiene service provider who put health and safety first.

All our engineers are DBS Checked to ensure suitable people are entering your premises and to safeguard vulnerable people. We are committed to maintaining the highest standards.

Do uRisk service my area?

Yes, our services are nationwide. Whether you have one or multiple water systems and one or multiple sites, we provide services across the country, with qualified engineers scattered throughout the UK and  offices based in Hertfordshire which is a 30-minute train journey to London King’s Cross.

A fabulous company, excellent customer service, they try to accommodate appoitments, and do there utmost in emergencies, been with them a few years now,  honestly cant fault them. Coming out of Covid 19, having our building urgently disanitised,  big thank-you to Luke and Lee for staying so late to get the job done!! Thank you Devon, for juggling the diary to fit us in so soon. A Team 🙂
Jo Maskell
Jo Maskell
18:02 15 Jun 20
Extremely happy with our legionella risk assessment carried out by uRisk, easy to understand and great customer service. Thanks again
Nickayla Robertson
Nickayla Robertson
21:22 15 Jan 19
Brilliant service! Thanks a lot for the hard graft
Leon Macauley
Leon Macauley
21:12 15 Jan 19
Brilliant Service, efficient, professional, punctual and friendly.
Alex Windsor
Alex Windsor
18:21 15 Jan 19
uRisk have been helping us with our Legionella Control for a number of years now. We've recently had a CQC audit and they were very impressed with our legionella compliance! Thank you for all your help.
Mike Port
Mike Port
20:41 07 Aug 18
Fantastic training courses and we've found the legionella risk assessment very easy to read and far more detailed than any we have previously had. 5 star service!
Gemma Pond
Gemma Pond
20:37 07 Aug 18
Incredibly detailed and professional team. Have been beyond helpful with with our CQC legionella compliance for our Safety. They’ve found solutions to fit around how we work and our budgets. We are always advised with reference to HSE which has been brilliant.
Amy Thorne
Amy Thorne
20:29 07 Aug 18
We're a small GP practice and started using uRisk for legionella risk assessments. We opted to use their remedial and monitoring services and they've been absolutely great. We cannot recommend them enough! Thank you so much!
Amanda Pates
Amanda Pates
18:30 07 Aug 18
Brilliant company, customer service was great! And engineers were fantastic. Thanks again uRisk! Will definitely be using them for all future work.
Nikesh Gohil
Nikesh Gohil
12:49 12 Mar 18