When is a Risk Assessment Required

What is a Water Logbook?

A water logbook is your central location for all your legionella control records. It plays a crucial part in your legionella control and management and allows for mangement records, assessments, certificates, record keeping, and more. Below is an extensive list of all the documents you might find within your water logbook.

Management Records that should be included in the Water Logbook

Management records are those records that identify the overall management of legionella control.


An overview of the monitoring tasks and responsibilities.


Communication Records

A record of all non-compliance issues that have been identified.

Water Sample Records

Water testing and analysis records to be kept within the logbook.


Your schematic drawing of the water system should to be kept within the logbook.

Management Structure

The water management group structure for all those involved.


All training records and/or certificates to be kept within the logbook.


Certificates for training records, sampling, etc. to be kept within the logbook.


Written Scheme

Introduction to legionella, control measures, emergency procedures and more.

Visitor Records

Visit records for all those who attend for legionella control should be kept within the logbook.

Remedial Work Records

All remedial works that have been undertaken are listed here to record actions to risks.

Legionella Risk Assessment

Your risk assessment should be stored within the water logbook.

Monitoring Records that should be included in the Water Logbook

Monitoring records are records that identify the results from tasks undertaken for legionella monitoring (control and management).

Weekly Flushing

Most taps are used weekly if not daily, which helps to keep water moving to make it difficult for bacteria to settle and grow. However, in commercial settings, many outlets are seldom used if at all. Examples might include office showers, school changing room showers, accessible toilets, and bib taps. Stagnation is arguably the number 1 cause for legionella proliferation, and therefore plays a vital role in your legionella control and management.

All infrequently used outlets should be flushed every 7 days (or twice weekly in healthcare) to ensure water does not stagnate and encourage legionella growth. Outlets should be flushed until a stable and compliant temperature is reached.

Knowing what outlets are infrequently used – there are 2 good indicators to tell us what outlets need to be added to the weekly flushing regime. Number 1 – you know you do not use the outlet. If it’s rarely used or an unoccupied area, it should be put onto the weekly flushing regime. Number 2 – non-compliant temperatures. If your outlet is not reaching the desired temperature range within the allowed timeframe when most other outlets do, this indicates that the outlet may be infrequently used and should be placed onto the weekly flushing regime.

Monthly Temperatures

Temperature play an important role in legionella bacteria control and management as the legionella bacteria can proliferation between 20-45°C and has even been known to grow at 54°C, with legionella’s most favoured temperature being 37°C (body temperature) which is why it can be dangerous to humans once contracted causing illness such as legionnaires disease, pneumonia, Pontiac fever, and the common cold and flu.

Temperatures must be reached within a specific timeframe. This allows us to ensure temperature testing remains consistent and allows us to determine the frequency of use of the outlet and potential areas of stagnation or risk.

Temperatures are required to be taken from all heat sources and the sentinel points in a water system. Sentinel points are the monthly temperature points at the nearest and furthest outlets of each water system. For example, taking the sentinel points from a cold-water storage tank would consist of taking temperature from the nearest tap to the tank and the furthest away. For heat sources, this means taking the temperatures nearest and furthest from all heat sources. This may be a cylinder, electric water heater, boiler or otherwise. However, in the case of an instant water heater with a single outlet such as a shower, the outlet becomes the nearest and furthest so one temperature would be all that can be taken.


Temperature Timeframes
  • Hot temperature – 1 minute
  • Cold temperature – 2 minutes


Temperature Guidelines
  • Hot outlet – 50°C (55°C in healthcare)
  • Cold outlet – <20°C
  • TMV* outlet – 38-43°C (ranges vary for showers/baths)
  • Scalding – 44°C


Heat Sources should be Set To
  • Cylinder and flow – 60-65°C
  • Cylinder return – 50°C (55°C in healthcare)
  • Combination Water Heater – 60-65°C
  • Boiler – 50-60°C (55°C minimum in healthcare)
  • Electric Water Heater – 50-60°C (55°C minimum in healthcare)
  • Instant Water Heater – 50-60°C (55°C minimum in healthcare)

*TMV – thermostatic mixing valve, blends hot and cold to create a reduced, non-scalding temperature. Often required for vulnerable persons and in healthcare.

Quarterly Descaling

Limescale is a great source of nutrients for legionella. Limescale can be found anywhere in a water system where there is hard water. The UK suffers from hard water due to the chalk limestone earth below the ground that finds its way into our reservoirs that supplies our mains water. Therefore, all outlets should be dismantled, cleaned, and descaled to remove the presence of limescale. This includes taps, spray heads, tank cleaning, shower-heads and hoses.

Quarterly Re-Circulating Return Loop

Taking the temperature from the re-circulating return loop quarterly for subordinate temperatures.

Six Monthly Expansion Vessel Flushing

An expansion vessel is a small white, blue, grey, or red tank. The white, blue, and grey vessel colours are to identify water system expansion vessels and the red is to identify heating system expansion vessels. Each vessel includes a rubber diaphragm that goes across the middle, where the bottom half of the vessel is filled with water and the top half with pressurised air. When water is heated at the heat source (like a cylinder) it may expand as much as 4%. The expansion vessel allows this expanded water (increase in water size) from the heat source (cylinder) to flow into the expansion vessel where the bottom half of the vessel (water) may push the diaphragm up into the top hair (airside) to allow for the expansion in water.

So why do we need to flush an expansion vessel? Well, there are 2 primary reasons for flushing expansion vessels:

  1. The expansion vessel is a dead end, and as such does not allow water out of it and therefore encourages stagnation both inside the vessel and all the pipework leading to it from the feeding tee (branch of pipe that leads to it).
  2. The diaphragm is made of rubber, which is a great source of nutrients for legionella.


The guidelines outline that we must flush the expansion vessel for six months to remove stagnant water from the vessel and relevant pipework.

Six Monthly Filter Servicing

A filters job is to cleanse the water impurities and allow for good quality water to pass by and therefore provides us with good quality water free from bacteria’s and the like. And in doing so the filter will become dirty itself. You will often see an internal filter that initially looks like a clear white tube that eventually turns brown/black with impurities over time.

Most manufacturers have given this timeframe 6 months before a filter is needed to be replaced or cleaned.

Annual Review

An annual review is an important part of your legionella testing and control. An engineer will confirm the status of your legionella control and management by reviewing the following:


  • Legionella Risk Assessment
  • Schematic
  • Water Logbook
  • Sample Results
Annual Cold Water Storage Tank Inspection

Cold water storage tanks overall as a design will not change from year to year but the condition of the tank internally certainly can. Cold water storage tanks are subject to poor temperatures (too hot or freeze), foreign bodies (bugs, animals), sediment (from mains), biofilm (from stagnation), wall spores (bacteria), and so on. Therefore, it is important to inspect both the internal and external conditions of a tank annually as a minimum.

Annual Cylinder Inspection

Hot water cylinders are subject to continual heat changes that may increase the risk of legionella through non-compliant temperatures. They also require temperature gauges, pipe insulation, and should be purged periodically to remove any internal limescale, debris, or sediment. Cylinders are prone to limescale build-up and an inspection and drain down (purge) of the cylinder will help to remove unwanted items within the cylinder.

Annual Combination Water Heater Inspection

A combination water heater consists of a cold-water storage tank on top feeding the hot water cylinder below, hence the name combination water heater. Therefore, both the tank and cylinder inspections and servicing must take place on a combination water heater.

Annual TMV Servicing

TMV or thermostatic mixing valves are blending valves that mix the hot and cold water to reduce the risk of scalding where temperatures are often set to 41°C, 3°C lower than the scalding starting temperature for vulnerable persons at 44°C.

TMVs are fitted with filters that protect the valve, where these filters are prone to blocking with limescale, sediment, and other matter. Therefore, a TMV should be serviced at least annually as recommended by most manufacturers. TMV servicing will often include temperature calibration, failsafe testing, and clean and disinfection of TMV parts amongst other actions where required.

Annual Representative Temperatures

Whilst you are required to undertake monthly temperature monitoring throughout the year at your sentinel points. You are also required to take the representative temperature at other points in the system to gather information on the rest of the water system. This could be made up of 10% of outlets in the system from areas you do not normally take the temperature from when undertaking monthly temperatures.

Annual Water Softener Servicing

Manufacturers recommend that water softeners should be serviced annually. This often includes a regeneration process where backflow is created to remove any bacteria or otherwise within the water softener system. Additionally, a review of the brine (salt) tank and other elements will be reviewed to ensure a safe and suitable working condition.

Annual Water Testing/ Legionella Sampling

It is recommended that legionella sampling or a legionella risk assessment is undertaken periodically or at least annually. And/or when there are non-conformances in the monitoring records.

The number of samples required will depend entirely on your water system. For example, samples should be taken from dead legs or areas of stagnation, cold water storage tanks, and all sentinel points to provide an accurate overview of the water systems condition.

Annual Water Testing/ Legionella Sampling

There is a range of other risk systems that require more bespoke management. For more information please contact our team. Below we have a list of water systems that commonly require regular legionella risk assessments:

  • Ultrasonic humidifiers/ foggers
  • Spray humidifiers
  • Air washers
  • Emergency showers
  • Sprinkler and hose systems
  • Swimming pools/ whirlpools/ jacuzzis
  • Horticultural misting systems
  • Dental chair
  • Vehicle wash systems
  • Fountains and water features
  • Industrial processing water systems
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Water dispensers
  • Evaporative cooling systems
  • More